Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas. by World Health Organization

Cover of: Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas. | World Health Organization

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  • Smallpox -- Prevention

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LC ClassificationsRA644.S6 W6
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v. (various paging)
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL5677203M
LC Control Number68141602

Download Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas.

Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas, hereafter referred to as the WHO Handbook, was issued by the Organi-zation in July (SE/ Rev. 1, World Health Organization).

It was an elaboration and adaptation of a manual developed in for the programme supported by the USA in western and central Africa (see Chapter 17).File Size: 4MB. Origin of Smallpox. The origin of smallpox is unknown. Smallpox is thought to date back to the Egyptian Empire around Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas.

book 3 rd century BCE (Before Common Era), based on a smallpox-like rash found on three mummies. The earliest written description of a disease that clearly resembles smallpox appeared in China in the 4 th century CE (Common Era). Early written descriptions also. A CHRONOLOGY OF PROGRESS, Introduction This section presents a year-by-year sum-mary of progress in smallpox eradication (Fig.

) to provide a frame of reference for the chapters describing the eradication pro-grammes in individual countries or groups of countries (Chapters ) and the certifica-tion of eradication (Chapters ). Key programme documents. Smallpox: Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis (Section II) In: Handbook for Smallpox Eradication Programmes in Endemic Areas (1st.

1. Introduction. Before smallpox eradication was attempted, four other eradication efforts had failed [1–3]: namely; hookworm, yellow fever, yaws and malaria eradication campaign was particularly extensive and intensive both in terms of manpower and financial resources (more than $ billion expended from to ) [].These failures eventually led many in the global health Cited by: The Smallpox Eradication unit at WHO Headquarters in Geneva circulated reports to SEP national and international staff.

In addition to the Smallpox Surveillance Report included in WHO's Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER), the unit distributed the Target Zero Progress Report and some reports from field staff detailing observations, outbreak investigations, experiments, and so on.

Country of Publication: United States Publisher: Washington, Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Description: p. illus. Language: Spanish MeSH: Smallpox/prevention & control* Notes: Translation of Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas.

NLM ID: [Book]. October The Indian states are divided into two categories: endemic and non-endemic. The endemic states receive the highest priority and the majority of available resources.

State Surveillance Teams are created in urgent areas. November The final phase of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme is announced. In India, the target is. The Disappearance of Smallpox, to (Data from Fenner et al., Smallpox and Its Eradication, –37; smallpox-endemic country list from tablepp.

–) Reinhardt: End of a Global Pox - Map 2 1st proof Bill Nelson 3/13/15 Smallpox-endemic countries, The world’s last naturally occurring case of smallpox: Somalia Cited by: 5. Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in Octoberand the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among ms: Early: Fever, vomiting, mouth sores, Later:.

The World Health Organization Smallpox Eradication Programme Smallpox is the only major human disease to have been eradicated. Epidemics of smallpox had inflicted mankind throughout history, and as recently assome million cases were still occuring annually in more than 30 endemic countries (Fenner et al ).

Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the variola virus, which is a member of the family Poxviridae.

Until the s, smallpox had been a. Variola Virus Stocks Following Eradication of Smallpox The World Health Organization (WHO) Intensified Smallpox Eradication Program was established in It included a global surveillance program, isolation of smallpox patients, and vaccination of the possible contacts of patients.

Purchase The Eradication of Smallpox - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBNBook Edition: 1. Smallpox Zero is an excellent commemoration of the 30th anniversary of smallpox eradication.

This picture book tells the story of the disease from its origin through eradication and. The Global Eradication of Smallpox is a product of two series of lectures presented at the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL, London, in and The book contextualises the global programme and the many factors contributing to the certification of Cited by: 3.

Introduction “The rapid eradication of smallpox from the place that was for many years the world’s principal endemic focus of the disease [i.e., India] has been singled out as one of the great victories in the history of public health: only twelve months separated a peak of more than 8, infected villages in May,andcases in that year, from the last indigenous case in May.

Traces of smallpox pustules found on the head of a 3,year-old mummy of the Pharaoh Ramses V. By G. Elliot Smith, Public Domain. In China, people appealed to the god Yo Hoa Long for protection from smallpox. Image taken from Recherche sur les Superstitions en Chine (Research on Chinese Superstitions) by Henri Dore, Shanghai, Smallpox is a highly contagious infection caused by the DNA orthopoxvirus, variola major.

There is also a less serious form called variola minor. Smallpox eradication was certified in and the last remaining stocks are now held securely in two laboratories in the USA and Russia.

The only possible sources of smallpox infection are therefore. I didn't know too much about smallpox before reading this book. I think it was a bit too much detail that dragged down the narrative of the book.

If this was a quick page book I think it would've worked a lot better. Then again it was already a sort of summary from the page book that was published about the eradication of smallpox/5. Eradication: lessons from the past. Henderson DA.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. The declaration in that smallpox had been eradicated reawakened interest in disease eradication as a public health strategy. The smallpox programme's success derived, in part, from lessons learned from the preceding costly failure of the malaria eradication campaign.

The eradication of a disease is permanent and global, while the elimination of a disease is an achievement restricted to a specific geographic area. Eradication of a disease refers to a deliberate effort that leads to the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent.

1; Eradication means that intervention measures are no longer required, the. --Smallpox vaccines. So there are at least 30 million doses of vaccine ready to go; more can be made, although of course not overnight -- say a few months.

At least some of the folks who were responsible for the eradication of smallpox are still around, and the methods are written up (Handbook for smallpox eradication programmes in endemic areas). However, a total of 2 years of effective surveillance must elapse before this last endemic area can be confirmed to be smallpox-free.

Worldwide, since January 1,smallpox cases have been detected only in certain areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia (Figure_1). The scourge of the world. An estimated million people died from smallpox in the 20th century alone.

This virulent disease, which kills a third of those it infects, is known to have co-existed. CURRENT SMALLPOX MORBIDITY A. Reported Cases. According to notifications received by the World Health Organization through Februcases of smallpox have been reported from the 19 countries participating in the West African Smallpox.

The work by other's to achieve the only instance of the complete eradication of a human infectious disease could, however, have been treated more fully. _The Eradication of Smallpox_ is worth picking up if only for its discussion of Jenner's life, an important component of the history of by: This paper is based on a report presented to the Twentieth World Health Assembly.

In65, cases of smallpox were reported throughout the world. This figure is higher than that recorded for the years and In imported infection produced 7 cases in Sarawak, which had been free from the disease for several years, and 71 cases in the United Kingdom [distinction between.

sary of smallpox eradication. This pic-ture book tells the story of the disease from its origin through eradication and beyond (proposed fate of virus stock).

The story is presented in short bubbles of text on a background of colorful, hand-drawn pictures. The children’s book packaging (8½″ × 11″ × ¼″ with. The road to eradication. In the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate the disease entirely.

By this time smallpox had been all but wiped out in Europe and North America but countries remained susceptible to outbreaks caused by individuals bringing the disease back from abroad.

The last natural case of smallpox was in Somalia in Author: History Hit. Rahima Banu, the world's last endemic case of severe smallpox, Variola Major, developed rash on Octo on Bhola Island, Bangladesh.

Achieving eradication in a country destroyed by war challenged the achievement of smallpox eradication. Betw. At the time, smallpox was endemic in 12 countries or territories in eastern and southern Africa, 11 in western and central Africa, seven in Asia, and Brazil in the Americas.

The WHO program designated two main components to its eradication plan: mass vaccinations using freeze-dried vaccine material of carefully monitored quality, and the. Global smallpox eradication was achieved only after decades of unsuccessful experiments in smallpox-endemic countries.

A case in point occurred in when a severe epidemic imposed heavy mortality on East Pakistan. In response a Bengali regional-nationalist ‘Citizens Provincial Epidemic Control Committee’ pushed aside the provincial health department and launched an eradication.

Global smallpox eradication was achieved only after decades of unsuccessful experiments in smallpox-endemic countries. A case in point occurred in when a severe epidemic imposed heavy mortality on East Pakistan. In response a Bengali regional-nationalist ‘Citizens Provincial Epidemic Control Committee’ pushed aside the provincial health department and launched an eradication campaign Author: Paul Greenough.

Smallpox Survivors - History - Eradication. Eradication. See also: Smallpox vaccine neither experienced endemic smallpox and never vaccinated widely, relying instead on protection by distance and strict quarantines. eradication programmes have been carried out by the Afghan government and their international backers, but since.

Simply, and with great humanity, The Eradication of Smallpox tells the story of smallpox - it's origins, the horror of the disease, and the millions of people killed or disfigured by it. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that one out of every ten people died /5. Early Eradication Efforts.

Prior to the discovery of the vaccine at the end of the 18th century, eradication efforts were typically limited to inoculation – injecting a bit of the smallpox virus, taken from the pustule of an infected person, into an uninfected person with the hope of stimulating immunity.

eradication government immunisation smallpox institute disease hepatitis research medical yellow fever children science You can write a book review and share your experiences.

Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the. Infectious Diseases in Children | We celebrate the 35th year without smallpox, once the most serious pestilence known to mankind. The achievement was the product of a global eradication program.

Lessons and innovations from the West and Central African Smallpox Eradication Program Article Literature Review in Vaccine 29 Suppl 4:D December with 9 Reads How we measure 'reads'Author: William Foege.

At the recommendation of an independent commission of experts, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Health Assembly announced the global eradication of smallpox.

It was a momentous occasion. In the view of many, with good reason, this was the greatest achievement of global public health in the twentieth century.

By Chris Healey In the event of a resurgence of smallpox, treatment and containment would be exacerbated by illnesses and medical practices not present when the virus was eliminated.

Smallpox was one of the most significant diseases in human history. Although it was first distinguished from measles in China around AD, evidence of the.While smallpox eradication has turned out to be incredibly cost-effective, some experts are questioning whether the resources required for polio eradication would be better spent elsewhere.

The polio eradication effort “has now cost $9 billion, and each year consumes another $1 billion. By contrast, the year drive to wipe out smallpox.

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